The II International Congress on Indigenous Worlds - dialogues on history, law and education - covering the period from the beginning of the colonial process (16th century) to present day, aims to expand a diverse collaborative network at national and international levels involving, in interdisciplinary discussions, the history of the indigenous peoples in America. In order to do so, it is necessary to broaden dialogues among researchers to build innovative theoretical-methodological ways to researches about traditional peoples. In recent years studies on indigenous issues have received contributions from several areas of knowledge such as Anthropology, Archeology, History, Education and Law, what have strengthened the understanding of the Amerindian resistance to pressures and violations of their rights over more than 500 years. In Brazil, more specifically since the 1990s, indigenous history has been legitimized as a fundamental dimension in the production of knowledge, being chosen as the subject of dissertations and theses in the various postgraduate programs. This trend has been seen in other countries of Latin America too. Continuous interdisciplinary dialogue and the use of multiple historical sources, as well as of various temporalities, allow us to deny the thesis of the nineteenth-century historian Francisco Adolfo Varnhagen, who stated that for the Indians there would be no history but ethnography only [which would imply assuming them as human groups living in a lower state]. More importantly, one of the concerns of the recent historiography on the indigenous worlds is not to construct an image of the "generic Indian", a victim of the first contacts with the Europeans, "decimated" and "assimilated", that is, in process of disappearance. On the contrary, in recent years, researches have been highlighting the indigenous actions which have revealed that each indigenous unit has an ethnic character, which allows him to build and to activate a position in front of the non-indigenous in the different border spaces and in new post-territorializations - contact in the Portuguese, Spanish and English Americas. And even if denied on the discursive level, indigenous peoples are politically organized, affirming their ethnicities and claiming the legitimacy of their memories and histories.

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